All Saints' Day (1st November)
Commemoration of the Faithful Departed All Souls' Day (2nd November)
Richard Hooker (3rd November)
Richard Hooker was born in March 1554 in Exeter. He was educated in Exeter until he was sent, with Bishop Jewel as his patron, to Corpus Christi College, Oxford. He graduated M.A. in 1577, and became a fellow of the college in the same year. He became assistant professor of Hebrew at the University, and took holy orders, becoming a clergyman in the Church of England in 1581. Hooker was Master of the Temple (i.e. Dean of the Law School) in 1585-
Martin (3rd November)
Illegitimate son of a Spanish nobleman and a young freed black slave, he grew up in poverty. Spent part of his youth with a surgeon-
Leonard (6th November)
That the seaside town near Hastings is named after this 6th. century hermit who lived near Limoges in central France is witness to the spread of the cult of this saint. Nearly 180 medieval English churches are dedicated to him. He was a nobleman, baptised by St. Remi of Rheims (+533), with the King of the Franks, Clovis, as his godfather. Declining the offer of a bishopric, he became a hermit; through his prayers, Clovis’ wife survived a difficult pregnancy and in gratitude the King offered him a large tract of land around his hermitage at Noblac (now named St. Leonard after him). It was here that he founded an abbey, where he was to be buried – the foundation greatly aided the spread of the cult of his sanctity. He is the patron saint of pregnant women and also of prisoners of war – thanks to a visit to his shrine by the crusader prince Bohemond, released from a Moslem prison in 1103
William Temple (6th November)
William Temple 1881–1944, archbishop of York (1929–42) and archbishop of Canterbury (1942–44); son of Frederick Temple. At Balliol College, Oxford, he became (1904) president of the Oxford Union. He was fellow and lecturer in philosophy (1904–10) at Queen's College, Oxford, and in 1909 was ordained a priest. Temple served as headmaster (1910–14) of Repton School and as rector (1914–17) of St. James's, Piccadilly. He joined the Life and Liberty Movement, which strove for an autonomous Church of England; the goal was achieved in part by the Enabling Act of 1919. He was canon (1919–21) of Westminster and bishop (1921–29) of Manchester. He was made archbishop of York in 1929, and in 1942 he became archbishop of Canterbury. Keenly interested in social and economic reform, he was a friend of Labour and the first president (1908–24) of the Workers' Educational Association. His leadership in the movement to form a world council of churches was outstanding. Among his numerous publications are 'Christianity and the State' (1928), 'Nature, Man, and God' (1934), and 'The Church Looks Forward' (1944).
Willibrord (7th November)
Willibrord was born in Northumbria and educated at Ripon but the main part of his life was dedicated to his missionary work in Frisia and northern Germany. He built many churches, inaugurated bishoprics and consecrated cathedrals: the Cathedral of Utrecht, with a diocesan organisation based on that of Canterbury, is his most well-
The Saints and Martyrs of England (8th November)
Margery Kempe (9th November)
Born at Lynn in Norfolk in about 1373, Margery married and had fourteen children. After she had received several visions, she and her husband went on a pilgrimage to Canterbury. Her fervent denunciations of all pleasure aroused stiff opposition and she was accused of Lollardy. In 1413 she and her husband took vows of chastity before the Bishop of Lincoln. She also made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. The Book of Margery Kempe, which is almost the sole source of information about the author, describes her travels and mystical experiences. It also shows her closeness to the passion of Christ for the sins of the world. The last reference to her is on a pilgrimage to Danzig in 1433.
Leo the Great (10th November)
Italian nobility. Strong student, especially in scripture and theology. Priest. Eloquent writer and homilist. Pope from 440 to 461 during the time of the invasion of Attila the Hun. When Attila marched on Rome, Leo went out to meet him and pleaded for leave. As Leo spoke, Attila saw the vision of a man in priestly robes, carrying a bare sword, and threatening to kill the invader if he did not obey Pope Leo. As Leo had a great devotion to Saint Peter, it is generally believed the first pope was the visionary opponent to the Huns. When Genseric invaded Rome, Leo's sanctity and eloquence saved the city again. Called the Council of Chalcedon to condemn heresies of the day. Fought Nestorianism, Monophysitism, Manichaeism, and Pelagianism. Built churches. Wrote letters and sermons encouraging and teaching his flock, many of which survive today; it is for these writings that Leo was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church in 1574.
Martin (11th November)
Pagan parents; his father was a Roman military officer and tribune. Martin was raised in Pavia, Italy. Discovered Christianity, and became a catechumen in his early teens. Joined the Roman imperial army at age 15, serving in a ceremonial unit that acted as the emperor's bodyguard, rarely exposed to combat. Cavalry officer, and assigned to garrison duty in Gaul. Trying to live his faith, he refused to let his servant wait on him. Once, while on horseback in Amiens in Gaul (modern France), he encountered a beggar. Having nothing to give but the clothes on his back, he cut his heavy officer's cloak in half, and gave it to the beggar. Later he had a vision of Christ wearing the cloak. Baptised into the Church at age 18. Just before a battle, Martin announced that his faith prohibited him from fighting. Charged with cowardice, he was jailed, and his superiors planned to put him in the front of the battle. However, the invaders sued for peace, the battle never occurred, and Martin was released from military service at Worms Spiritual student of Saint Hilary at Poitiers. On a visit to Lombardy to see his parents, he was robbed in the mountains -
Charles Simeon (13th November)
Two hundred years ago, students at the English Universities were required to attend church regularly, and to receive the Holy Communion at least once a year. This latter requirement often had bad effects, in that it encouraged hypocrisy and an irreverent reception of the sacrament. Occasionally, however, it had a very good effect, as with the Cambridge student Charles Simeon. He wrote: "On 29 January 1779 I came to college. On 2 February I understood that at division of term I must attend the Lord's Supper. The Provost absolutely required it. Conscience told me that, if I must go, I must repent and turn to God." By this experience his life was transformed. Upon finishing his college work he was ordained, and shortly appointed chaplain of Holy Trinity, Cambridge, where he remained for 55 years, until shortly before his death on 12 November 1836. His ministry helped to transform the lives of many undergraduates, of whom we may mention two in particular. Henry Martyn, inspired by Simeon, abandoned his intention of going into law and instead devoted his life and his considerable talents to preaching the Gospel in India and Persia. William Wilberforce, also led in part by Simeon's ministry of teaching and example, devoted his life to the abolition of slavery throughout the British Empire. Simeon's enthusiasm and zeal brought him much ridicule and abuse, which he bore uncomplainingly. Though he himself remained in one place, his influence extended through the Anglican world.
Samuel Seabury (14th November)
Samuel Seabury 1729–96, American clergyman, first bishop of the Episcopal Church, b. Connecticut, grad. Yale, 1748. He studied medicine at the Univ. of Edinburgh, then turned to theology and was ordained (1753) a priest in the Church of England before returning to America as a missionary in New Brunswick, N.J. He was then rector at Jamaica (Long Island) and in Westchester co., New York, until 1775. He then avowed himself a Loyalist in the American Revolution, and for a time he had to practice medicine in New York City, which was under British occupation. He later became (1778) a chaplain to a royal regiment. After the war he was chosen bishop of Connecticut in 1783. The English bishops withheld consecration because of a legal difficulty, but in 1784 he was consecrated at Aberdeen by bishops of the Scottish Episcopal Church. In 1789 the General Convention of the Episcopal Church in the United States confirmed his position and he became presiding bishop.
Queen Margaret of Scotland (16th November)
Margaret (born c. 1045) was the grand-
Edmund Rich (16th November)
1170?–1240, English churchman, archbishop of Canterbury, b. Abingdon. He taught at Oxford. A forceful preacher, he successfully preached (1227) the crusade against the Saracens. Edmund was made archbishop in 1234 and mediated the peace between Wales and England. His zeal for reform antagonized Henry III who, to isolate St. Edmund, secured from Rome a papal legate sympathetic to himself, with jurisdiction over the archbishop. His episcopacy thus neutralized, St. Edmund retired reluctantly to Pontigny, a Cistercian abbey in France, where he died soon after.
Hugh (17th November)
Son of William, Lord of Avalon. His mother Anna died when he was 8, and he was raised and educated at a convent at Villard-
Elizabeth of Hungary (18th November)
Princess, the daughter of King Andrew of Hungary. Great-
Hilda (19th November)
Hilda was the grandniece of King Edwin of Northumbria, a kingdom of the Angles. She was born in 614 and baptized in 627 when the king and his household became Christians. In 647 she decided to become a nun, and under the direction of Aidan (see 31 Aug) she established several monasteries. Her last foundation was at Whitby. It was a double house: a community of men and another of women, with the chapel in between, and Hilda as the governor of both; and it was a great centre of English learning, one which produced five bishops. Here a stable-
Mechtild (19th November)
Mechtild of Magdeburg (1210 -
Edmund (20th November)
When the heathen Anglo-
Priscilla Lydia Sellon (20th November)
Priscilla Lydia Sellon was born probably in 1821. Although never enjoying good health, she responded to an appeal from the Bishop of Exeter in 1848 for workers amongst the destitute in Plymouth. The group of women she gathered around her adopted a convent type lifestyle and, in the face of much opposition, she created the Sisters of Mercy. Her crucial role in the revival of Religious Life in the Church of England was enhanced when, in 1856, her sisters joined with the first community founded -
Cecilia (22nd November)
Cultivated young patrician woman whose ancestors loomed large in Rome's history. She vowed her virginity to God, but her parents married her to Valerian of Trastevere. Cecilia told her new husband that she was accompanied by an angel, but in order to see it, he must be purified. He agreed to the purification, and was baptised; returning from the ceremony, he found her in prayer accompanied by a praying angel. The angel placed a crown on each of their heads, and offered Valerian a favour; the new convert asked that his brother be baptised. The two brothers developed a ministry of giving proper burial to martyred Christians. In their turn they were arrested and martyred for their faith. Cecilia buried them at her villa on the Apprian Way, and was arrested for the action. She was ordered to sacrifice to false gods; when she refused, she was martyred in her turn. The Acta of Cecilia includes the following: "While the profane music of her wedding was heard, Cecilia was singing in her heart a hymn of love for Jesus, her true spouse." It was this phrase that led to her association with music, singers, musicians, etc.
Clement (23rd November)
Clement I, Pope, generally known as Clement of Rome, or Clemens Romanus (c. 96), was one of the Apostolic Fathers, and in the lists of bishops of Rome is given the third or fourth place, either before or after Anacletus. There is no ground for identifying him with the Clement of Philippians 4:3. He may have been a freedman of T. Flavius Clemens, who was consul with his cousin, the Emperor Domitian, in 95. A 9th century tradition says he was martyred in the Crimea in 102; earlier authorities say he died a natural death.
Catherine of Alexandria (25th November)
St. Catherine of Alexandria, Virgin and Martyr. She is the patroness of philosophers and preachers. St. Catherine is believed to have been born in Alexandria of a noble family. Converted to Christianity through a vision, she denounced Maxentius for persecuting Christians. Fifty of her converts were then burned to death by Maxentius. Maxentius offered Catherine a royal marriage if she would deny the Faith. Her refusal landed her in prison. While in prison, and while Maxentius was away, Catherine converted Maxentius' wife and two hundred of his soldiers. He had them all put to death. Catherine was likewise condemned to death. She was put on a spiked wheel, and when the wheel broke, she was beheaded. She is venerated as the patroness of philosophers and preachers. St. Catherine's was one of the voices heard by St. Joan of Arc.
Isaac Watts (25th November)
In 1674, Isaac Watts was born in Southampton. Because his family were Dissenters or Non-
Day of Intercession and Thanksgiving for the Missionary Work of the Church (29th November)
Andrew the Apostle (30th November)