Justin (1st June)
Christian apologist, born at Flavia Neapolis, about A.D. 100, converted to Christianity about A.D. 130, taught and defended the Christian religion in Asia Minor and at Rome, where he suffered martyrdom about the year 165.
The Martyrs of Uganda (3rd June)
On 3 June 1886, thirty-
Petroc (4th June)
Younger son of King Glywys. On his father's death, the people of Glywysing called for Petroc to take the crown of one the country's sub-
Boniface [Wynfrith] (5th June)
Educated at the Benedictine monastery at Exeter. Benedictine monk at Exeter. Missionary to Germany from 719, assisted by Saint Albinus and Saint Agatha. Destroyed idols and pagan temples, and built churches on their sites. Bishop. Archbishop of Mainz. Reformed churches in his see, and built religious houses in Germany. Ordained Saint Sola. Founded or restored the dioceses of Bavaria, Thuringgia, and Franconia. Evangelised in Holland, but was set upon by a troop of pagans, and he and 52 of his new flock were martyred. In Saxony, Boniface encountered a tribe worshipping a Norse deity in the form of a huge oak tree. Boniface walked up to the tree, removed his shirt, took up an axe, and without a word he hacked down the six foot wide wooden god. Boniface stood on the trunk, and asked, "How stands your mighty god? My God is stronger than he." The crowd's reaction was mixed, but some conversions were begun. One tradition about Saint Boniface says that he used the customs of the locals to help convert them. There was a game in which they threw sticks called kegels at smaller sticks called heides. Boniface bought religion to the game, having the heides represent demons, and knocking them down showing purity of spirit.
Ini Kopuria (6th June)
As a native policeman, Ini Kopuria's job took him all over Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands, but a vision of Jesus, calling him to do different work for his people, led him to a life of evangelism in which he aimed to take and live the gospel in the remotest villages and islands in Melanesia. He began a Brotherhood for Melanesians in 1925 and, with help from his bishop, prepared a Rule and made vows himself in which he dedicated his life and his land to God. Men were asked to make only a five-
Thomas Ken (8th June)
Ken trained at Winchester and New College, Oxford, and was ordained an Anglican priest in 1662. In 1663, he became Rector of Little Easton, and Rector of Woodhay and Prebendary of Winchester in 1669. He published Manual of Prayers for the use of the scholars of Winchester College, in 1674. He was briefly chaplain to Princess Mary, and later to the British fleet. He became Bishop of Bath and Wells in 1685. He was one of several bishops imprisoned in the Tower of London for refusing to sign James II’s “Declaration of Indulgence” (hoping to restore Catholicism to power in England); he was tried and acquitted. Ken wrote a great deal of poetry, published posthumously in 1721.
Columba (9th June)
Irish royalty, the son of Fedhlimidh and Eithne of the Ui Neill clan. Bard. Priest. Itinerant preacher and teacher throughout Ireland. Miracle worker. Founded monasteries. Spiritual teacher of Saint Corbmac. Exiled to Iona, he founded and led a monastic community there for 12 years. He and the monks of Iona, including Saint Baithen of Iona and Saint Eochod, then evangelised the Picts.
Ephrem (9th June)
Ephrem (or Ephren or Ephraim or Ephrain) of Edessa was a teacher, poet, orator, and defender of the Faith. (To English-
Barnabas (11th June) Apostle
Richard Baxter (14th June)
Puritan evangelist of Kidderminster. There was an amazing transformation of that town under his ministry. Family catechising, family worship, a public worship pattern full of praise, church discipline, preaching, devotional reading, regular pastoralcounselling, and small-
Evelyn Underhill (15th June)
Evelyn Underhill was born in 1850 and grew up in London. Her friends included Laurence Housman (poet and brother of the poet A E Housman) and Sarah Bernhardt (actress), and Baron Friedrich von Huegel, a writer on theology and mysticism. Largely under his guidance, she embarked on a life of reading, writing, meditation, and prayer. From her studies and experience she produced a series of books on contemplative prayer.) Miss Underhill (Mrs. Hubert Stuart Moore) taught that the life of contemplative prayer is not just for monks and nuns, but can be the life of any Christian who is willing to undertake it. She also taught that modern psychological theory, far from being a threat to contemplation, can fruitfully be used to enhance it. In her later years, she spent a great deal of time as a lecturer and retreat director. She died on June 15, 1941.
Richard (16th June)
Richard of Wyche was born in 1197 at Droitwyche, the son of a prosperous yeoman farmer. He and his brother were orphaned at an early age, and an incompetent guardian wasted the inheritance. Richard worked long and hard to restore the family property, and when he had succeeded, he turned it over to his brother and went off to Oxford to become a scholar. He was too poor to afford a gown or a fire in winter, but he did very well at his studies, with Robert Grosseteste among his teachers. He established what would be a lifelong friendship with his tutor, Edmund Rich (Edmund of Abingdon). He studied canon law at Oxford (and probably also at Paris and Bologna) and, having acquired a doctorate, he became Chancellor of Oxford in 1235. Meanwhile, his tutor had become Archbishop of Canterbury, and soon asked Richard to become his Chancellor. When the Archbishop rebuked King Henry III for keeping various bishoprics vacant as long as possible (because as long as they were vacant their revenues went to the Crown), Henry forced him into exile, and Richard accompanied him to France and nursed him in his final illness. After the Archbishop's death in 1240, Richard studied at the Dominican house in Orleans, and was ordained priest in 1243. In 1244 he was elected Bishop of Chichester, but Henry would not recognize the election, locked him out of the bishop's residence, and pocketed the revenues. Richard accepted shelter with a village priest, and spent the next two years walking barefoot through his diocese, preaching to fishermen and farmers, and correcting abuses. He held synods to legislate, and insisted that the sacraments must be administered without payment, and the Liturgy celebrated with reverence and order. The clergy were required to be celibate, to wear clerical dress, and to live in the parishes they were assigned to and carry out their duties in person. The laity were required to attend services on all Sundays and holy days, and to know by heart the Lord's Prayer, the Hail Mary, and the Apostles' Creed. After two years, Henry was pressured into recognizing Richard as Bishop, but Richard continued to live as he had before. One of his concerns was that the Moslems then in control of Jerusalem would not admit Christian pilgrims. In 1253 he travelled about appealing for a new Crusade, aimed solely at pressuring the Moslems into permitting pilgrimages. He caught a fever and died in 1253.
Joseph Butler (16th June)
Butler was born in 1692 and ordained in 1718. In 1726 he published Fifteen Sermons, preached at the Rolls Chapel in London, and chiefly dealing with human nature and its implications for ethics and practical Christian life. He maintained that it is normal for a man to have an instinct of self-
Samuel and Henrietta Barnett (17th June)
English clergyman and social worker. As vicar of St. Jude’s, Whitechapel, in the slums of London, he pioneered in the social settlement movement. Toynbee Hall, the first settlement house, was opened in 1884 with Barnett as its first warden. He was also active in the university extension movement. His wife, Henrietta Octavia Barnett, 1851–1936, was especially interested in housing and helped found a model garden suburb at Hampstead. She collaborated in some of her husband’s books, notably Practicable Socialism (1888) and wrote his biography (1918). In 1924 she became Dame Commander of the British Empire
Bernard Mizeki (18th June)
Bernard Mizeki was born in Portuguese East Africa (Mozambique) in about 1861. When he was twelve or a little older, he left his home and went to Capetown, South Africa, where for the next ten years he worked as a labourer, living in the slums of Capetown, but firmly refusing to drink alcohol, and remaining largely uncorrupted by his surroundings. After his day's work, he attended night classes at an Anglican school. Under the influence of his teachers, from the Society of Saint John the Evangelist, he became a Christian and was baptized on 9 March 1886. Besides the fundamentals of European schooling, he mastered English, French, high Dutch, and at least eight local African languages. In time he would be an invaluable assistant when the Anglican church began translating its sacred texts into African languages. After graduating from the school, he accompanied Bishop Knight-
Sundar Singh (19th June)
Sundar Singh (1889-
Alban (22nd June)
First martyr of Britain, c. 304. The commonly received account of the martyrdom of St. Alban meets us as early as the pages of Bede's "Ecclesiastical History". According to this, St. Alban was a pagan living at Verulamium (now the town of St. Albans in Hertfordshire), when a persecution of the Christians broke out, and a certain cleric fleeing for his life took refuge in Alban's house. Alban sheltered him, and after some days, moved by his example, himself received baptism. Later on, when the governor's emissaries came to search the house, Alban disguised himself in the cloak of his guest and gave himself up in his place. He was dragged before the judge, scourged, and, when he would not deny his faith, condemned to death. On the way to the place of execution Alban arrested the waters of a river so that they crossed dry-
Etheldreda (23rd June)
Sister of Saint Jurmin. Relative of King Anna of East Anglia. Princess widowed after three years marriage; rumour had it that the marriage was never consummated, Etheldrda having taken a vow of perpetual virginity. She married again for reasons of state. Her new husband knew of her vow, but tired of living as brother and sister, and began to make advances on her; she refused him. He tried to bribe the local bishop, Saint Wilfrid of York, to release her from her vow. Wilfrid refused, and helped her to escape to a promontory called Colbert's Head. A seven day high tide, considered divine intervention, separated the two; the young man gave up. The marriage was annulled, and Audrey took the veil. She spent a year with her niece, Saint Ebbe the Elder. Founded the great abbey of Ely, where she lived an austere life. She died of an enormous and unsightly tumour on her neck. She gratefully accepted this as Divine retribution for all the necklaces she had worn in her early years. In the Middle Ages a festival called Saint Audrey's Fair, was held at Ely on her feast day. The exceptional shoddiness of the merchandise, especially the neckerchiefs, contributed to the English language the word tawdry, a corruption of Saint Audrey.
The Birth of John the Baptist (24th June)
Cyril (27th June)
Cyril of Alexandria, Bishop and Doctor of the Church, was born at Alexandria, Egypt. He was nephew of the patriarch of that city, Theophilus. Cyril received a classical and theological education at Alexandria and was ordained by his uncle. He accompanied Theophilus to Constantinople in 403 and was present at the Synod of the Oak that deposed John Chrysostom, whom he believed guilty of the charges against him. He succeeded his uncle Theophilus as patriarch of Alexandria on Theophilus' death in 412,but only after a riot between Cyril's supporters and the followers of his rival Timotheus. Cyril at once began a series of attacks against the Novatians, whose churches he closed; the Jews, whom he drove from the city; and governor Orestes, with whom he disagreed about some of his actions. In 430 Cyril became embroiled with Nestorius, patriarch of Constantinople, who was preaching that Mary was not the Mother of God since Christ was Divine and not human, and consequently she should not have the word theotokos (God-
Irenaeus (28th June)
Bishop of Lyons, and Father of the Church. Information as to his life is scarce, and in some measure inexact. He was born in Proconsular Asia, or at least in some province bordering thereon, in the first half of the second century; the exact date is controversial -
Peter and Paul (29th June) Apostles